“We are told that the study of literature ‘cultivates the taste, educates the sympathies and enlarges the mind’. These are all excellent things, only we cannot examine tastes and sympathies. Examiners must have technical and positive information to examine.”  Professor Edward Freeman, 1887.


A revealing quote, less about the nature of literature, more about the aims of ‘history’. In time, history acquiesces to ‘literature’ for a brief moment.


Stoic Logic.

“By the term ‘Logic’ today we usually mean the formal analysis of arguments. While this sort of abstract reasoning was an important part of logic in antiquity, ancient logic was much broader that its modern counterpart. ‘Logic’ translates ‘logike‘, and ‘logike‘ is that part of philosophy that examines logos – reason, language or argument – in all of its forms, including formal arguments, rhetorical arguments, speech, grammar, philosophy of language and truth (i.e. epistemology). The formal abstract reasoning that now constitutes logic was known in antiquity as one part of dialectic, and dialectic was just one part of  ‘logike’.

Stoicism. John Sellars. 2006. (Pg 55.)

An excellent summation of the disjuncture between the contemporary meaning of logic and its ancient meaning.